Epilepsy More than Doubles Mortality Risk for Veterans of Recent Wars

Study Emphasizes Comorbid Disease Management in Epilepsy Patients

By Brenda L. Mooney

SAN ANTONIO—Meeting criteria for an epilepsy diagnosis significantly raises the risk of death among veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan, a new study has revealed.

Unadjusted cumulative mortality estimates of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans during the 60-month follow-up period after initial provider visit, by epilepsy status — Veterans Health Administration, United States, 2011–2015

In fact, Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAVs) with epilepsy were found to be 2.6 times more likely to die between 2011 and 2015 than similar veterans without epilepsy, according to a report published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report and presented last month at the American Epilepsy Society meeting in Houston.1

The study, conducted by the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and a number of other VAMCs, used records of more than 320,000 IAVs receiving VA care in 2010 and 2011 to reach the conclusions.

“Veterans with epilepsy who were deployed in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts could benefit from evidence-based chronic disease self-management programs to reduce physical and psychiatric comorbidity, and linkages to U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs clinical health care providers and other community health and social service providers,” the researchers recommend.

Focusing on 2,187 veterans who met the criteria for epilepsy, examination of mortality over the next five years revealed that approximately five times more IAVs with epilepsy died by the end of 2015 than similar IAVs without epilepsy. A second analysis controlling for co-occurring conditions—such as cardiac disease, stroke, cancer and mental health conditions—also was conducted to determine if epilepsy uniquely contributed to mortality.

“Similar to studies of civilian samples, we found that cancer, stroke and cardiac disease were strong predictors of five-year mortality. But, even after controlling for the impact of these comorbid conditions, we still found a substantial effect for epilepsy,” explained lead author Mary Jo Pugh, PhD, RN, a research health scientist for the Veterans Evidence-based Research, Dissemination, and Implementation Center at the South Texas Veterans Health Care System and professor of epidemiology, biostatistics and medicine at the UT Health Science Center. “After controlling for comorbidities, IAVs with epilepsy were about 2.6 times more likely to die during the follow-up period than similar veterans without epilepsy.””Because federal databases at the time the study was conducted did not include causes of death, the report does not speculate on whether mortality was linked to suicidality, car accidents, heart attack, cancer or sudden unexplained death in epilepsy, Pugh added.

Part of the problem is that a range of comorbidities on top of seizures can present healthcare providers with competing demands, she pointed out, noting, “If you have a patient who comes in and is having seizures, that is often the focus of care, because persistent seizures can be life-threatening and have a substantial effect on quality of life. But chronic disease management for other conditions is also needed. We need to take a holistic approach in epilepsy care. We need to take care of epilepsy and other conditions that affect patients’ health, quality of life and, ultimately, mortality.””The age-adjusted prevalence of seizure disorder in U.S. deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts is 6.1 per 1,000 persons, compared with 7.1 to 10 per 1,000 persons in the general population, according to the MMWR report.

For this study, veterans whose only seizure medication was either gabapentin or pregabalin were included in the epilepsy group only if they also had an ICD-9-CM 345 diagnosis to minimize false-positive cases because gabapentin and pregabalin are sometimes used for pain management or for other indications.


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